Patterns of functional activity of neuron-like cognitive systems
Using up-to-date methods of nonlinear dynamics and neurophysiology data the IAP RAS resear-chers constructed basic models of neuron-like systems describing dynamic modes of functional activity that are adequate to available experimental data on the features of living system perception and response to various sensor signals. Models with biology-inspired architecture are used for creation of technical devices (simulators) capable of reproducing basic regularities of the behavior of living systems. The following results were obtained at the Laboratory of Autowave Processes.
A basic modification of shock simulator stably reproducing a typical mode of interaction of three neuroendocrinal systems was developed based on data on neurochemical mechanisms of extreme states (three-component theory of stress and shock). The dynamics of physiological reactions recorded in laboratory experiments and in clinical studies under analogous actions was successfully reproduced by means of a mathematical model. Dynamic modes were classified and the principle settings of the basic simulator module were determined. Further research will allow developing the information technology that would optimize diagnostics of the course of extreme states and elaboration of antishock drugs (S. B. Parin, S. A. Po-levaya, V. G. Yakhno).
Study of diagnostic features for assessing the functional state of living systems. Methods of psychophysical registration of human characteristics are developed by the research team headed by S.A. Polevaya. Studies of the dynamics of multilevel interaction of functional modules in living and artificial cognitive systems are carried out on the basis of devices, methods and model description of modes of recognition of sensor signals and controlling virtual objects in humans in different environmental contexts.
Mathematical models of collective dynamics of neuronal populations of the sensor zones of cerebral cortex with parameters consistent with data of psychophysical experiment were developed. The neural network based on modified pulsed neurons describes impulse activity distribution in two symmetric (right- and left-hemispheric) neuronal populations containing 100 elements each under the action of dichotic stimulus. A system for personified monitoring and remote diagnostics of human functional state under the conditions of free behavior was developed based on the integration of WEB technologies, wireless sensor networks and miniature sensor platforms. A unique opportunity was created for acquiring knowledge about natural dynamics of the interaction îf human physiological systems responsible for recognition, attention, memory, decision making, emotions, organization of behavior without distance and mobility limitations. Analysis of data monitoring by the methods of nonlinear dynamics permits personified mapping of stressor, continuous control of extreme and optimal functioning of the organism, and early diagnostics of dangerous functional states.
Study of the dynamics of molecular self-assembly processes in multicomponent liquids. A new methodo-logical approach to assessing the quality of multicomponent liquids without determining their composition was proposed (Ò. À. Yakhno, À. G. Sanin, Î. À. Sanina, V. G. Yakhno). The approach is based on the phenomenon of self-organization of drops drying on a solid wetted substrate. The physicochemical mechanisms of the self-organization processes were studied. A device for registering the dynamics of mechanical and acoustic properties of drying drops representing the dynamics of self-assembly of liquid components and their transition to solid state was developed. Complex physicochemical processes in a drying drop are integrally plotted as a curve of acoustomechanical impedance (AMI). It was shown experimentally that the shape of the AMI curve is a fingerprint of the liquid. The cognitive component of this approach is reduction of the dimension of measurement space by registering one integral parameter — AMI dynamics. Quantitative comparison of the shape of the curves of the studied liquids with the reference ones permits establishing authenticity of the liquids. This simple, fast and cheap method was successfully tested for medical and veterinary express-diagnostics for revealing fake beverage and drugs. It is quite possible that an analogous mechanism will work in the case of ordor perception in living organisms.